This circuit protects the costly equipment like TVs, air conditioners, Refrigerators, etc. from high voltages as well as low voltages. If the supplied voltage is abnormal (High or low) then the circuit automatically turns off the load. This circuit also produces sound when main power resumes.
Generally, voltage stabilizers are used in this type of applications to maintain constant AC voltage. However, due to the abnormal AC supply, relays in voltage stabilizer switches ON and OFF continuously. The frequent energization or de-energization of relays leads to the shortening the lifetime of appliances and the stabilizer itself. Hence it is better to use this project in order to control the appliances instead of costly stabilizers.
High and Low Voltage Cutoff with Delay and Alarm Principle:
When the supply voltage is high, the DC voltage at the cathode of zener diode D4 becomes greater than 5.6V. As a result, transistor Q1 is in ON and transistor Q2 gets switched off. Hence the relay RL1 de-energizes and load would be in OFF condition.
Under low supply voltage condition, transistor Q1 switches to ON condition and as a result transistor Q2 switches off, making the load OFF.
When normal AC supply voltage is applied, the DC voltage at the cathode of zener diode D4 is less than 5.6V, now transistor Q1 is off condition. As a result, transistor Q2 is in ON condition, hence load switches to ON by indicating the green LED.
When supply is resumed after a break, 555 timer IC goes low and this triggers the 555 timer IC. The output of 555 timer IC makes sound IC operate through the transistor Q3, at the same time, transistor Q1 switches to ON condition as the output 555 timer is connected to the base of Q1 and results from transistor Q2 OFF. Thus the relay switches off the load.
High and Low Voltage Cutoff with Delay and Alarm Circuit Diagram:
- Center tapped Transformer (12-0-12V, 500mA)
- NE 555 timer
- UM66 IC
- 12V Relay
- 4 Transistors – SL100
- 2 Zener diodes – 5.6V
- Zener diode – 5V
- LED’s – red, green
- 5 Diodes – 1n4001
- 16V Electrolytic capacitors – 100uF, 10uF, 1uF
- Ceramic capacitor – 0.01uF
- Potentiometers – 4.7k, 4.7k, 10k
- 7 Resistors – 1k
- Resistors – 10k, 1M
High and Low Voltage Cutoff with Delay and Alarm Circuit Design:
In this circuit, 555 timers are configured to operate in monostable mode. In this circuit, pin4 and pin8 are shorted to avoid sudden resets. The pulse width of the 555 timer output signal is about 10 seconds. This output signal drives the speaker.
Speaker gives melodious sound when power is resumed because of UM66 IC. The volume of the speaker can be controlled by using POT RV3.
Green LED indicates normal AC supply voltage. Red LED is used for power indication.
Here zener diode D4 along with transistor Q1 is used for comparing the input voltage. Transistor Q2 switches the load based on the output of transistor Q1. Diodes D1 and D2 are used for rectification purpose. Capacitor C1 filters the input AC ripples.
How to Operate this Circuit?
- Give the connections according to the Circuit Diagram
- While giving the supply, make sure that there is no common connection between AC and DC supplies.
- Switch ON the input AC supply.
- Make the input supply voltage low or high. Now, you can observe that load is automatically switched off.
- Apply the normal supply voltage. Now, you can observe that the load will run by indicating the green LED.
- Now resume the power. You can listen to the melodious sound.
- Switch off the supply.
High and Low Voltage Cutoff with Delay and Alarm Circuit Advantages and Applications:
- Cost is less as compared to voltage stabilizers
- Consumes less power.
- This circuit is used in homes and offices to protect equipment from high voltages and low voltages.